PRÉCISIONS IMPORTANTES : Le journal égyptien Al-Dostor qui m’a interviewé a gravement amputé et modifié mes réponses, en m’attribuant des propos qui ne sont pas les miens. La version que vous allez lire est l’originale. Al-Dostor a publié dans ses colonnes la version tronquée et modifiée de l’entretien.
J’ai demandé à la journaliste de Al-Dostor, Amina ZAKI, qui m’a interviewé, pourquoi ils ont amputé, simplifié et modifié mes réponses. Elle m’a répondu que c’était en raison de la visite de l’émir du Qatar en Egypte. Pour information, le journal Al-Dostor est dirigé par Mohamed OMAR.
IMPORTANT CLARIFICATIONS : The Egyptian newspaper Al-Dostor that interviewed me severely amputed and changed my answers, attributing to me words that are not mine. The version you are about to read is the original. Al-Dostor published in its columns the truncated and modified version of the interview.
I asked the journalist of Al-Dostor, Amina ZAKI, who interviewed me, why they cut out, simplified and changed my answers. She answered that it was because of the visit of the Emir of Qatar to Egypt. For your information, the newspaper Al-Dostor is directed by Mohamed OMAR.
Al Dustour : How do you see the presence of the Muslim Brotherhood in France now ?
Youssef Hindi : The implantation of the Muslim Brotherhood in France intensified during the mandates of President Nicolas Sarkozy and François Hollande. This is explained in particular by the fact that Qatar, which took over from Saudi Arabia as sponsor of the Muslim Brotherhood, maintained very close relations with French politicians in this period.
Qatar, a great promoter of terrorism and an actor in the destruction of Libya and Syria, offered, via its embassy in France, Rolex watches to French politicians : 6,000 euro watches for deputies and 80,000 euro watches for ministers. These representatives of the French people were also offered vouchers to buy in luxury stores.1
At the end of November 2015, a LR parliamentarian (Les Républicains) was alarmed by the weight taken by Qatar in France: « They are here at home, we pass them everything and there is corruption to buy guys, they are ready to do anything to buy you » he said.
After his mandate, neoconservative President Nicolas Sarkozy, who was at the forefront of the war against Libya, was paid 100,000 euros by Qatar for a 45-minute lecture he gave on December 6, 2014 in Doha2.
This system of corruption also explains why the French leaders have left the way clear for the influence networks of the Muslim Brotherhood (financed by Qatar) and the Saudi-Wahhabi, which have established themselves in France and indoctrinate a part of the Muslim youth with the approval of the French state.
The largest NGO (non-governmental organization) in Qatar, Qatar charity, founded in 1992, subsidizes associations, Islamic centers, mosques, high schools (like the Lycée Averroès in Lille, directed by Amar Lasfar, the president of the « Muslims of France », ex-UOIF, which is an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood). This Qatari NGO is active in several continents : in Europe, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
Qatar, through its NGO, has launched 140 projects across Europe, connected to the Muslim Brotherhood ecosystem (associations and personalities).
Italy is the first European country targeted (50 projects), then France with 26 projects, followed by Spain, Germany, Switzerland, England, Norway, Poland, Ukraine, Crimea, Luxembourg.
The centers they finance are life centers, like the mosque-cathedral in Mulhouse (more than 25 million euros): library, restaurant, swimming pool, morgue.
Within Qatar charity, there is a Muslim Brotherhood proselytizing program, called El Rey. This program finances all the Muslim Brotherhood Islamic centers in Europe. Suitcases have been sent to finance the training institute for imams in Château Chinon (in the Morvan region).
In addition to young Muslims in the suburbs, this Wahhabi proselytizing of Qatar charity targets the places where migrants arrive in Europe 3.
Al Dustour : What are the dangers of political Islam groups and the Muslim Brotherhood in general ?
Youssef Hindi : The dangers of the Muslim Brotherhood are well known, as we have seen it in action since its founding by Hassan Al Banna in 1928. It is an organization of subversion, revolutionary and in some cases terrorist. They have specialized in destabilizing Muslim states. In Egypt at the time of Nasser, but also in Saudi Arabia, country in which they took refuge, and more recently in Syria where the terrorist organization Free Syrian Army, which tried to overthrow Bashar el Assad was financed and piloted in part by the Muslim Brotherhood4.
The Muslim Brotherhood, and subsequently the Free Syrian Army, have joined forces with Al Nosra (Al Qaeda) and Daech against the Syrian state.
In Europe, the Muslim Brotherhood has neither the power nor the capacity to overthrow states. The ground is not the same as in the Arab-Muslim countries. But all those who have committed attacks in France have been in contact in one way or another with members of the Muslim Brotherhood. Those who have returned to carry out attacks in recent years were protected from the 1990s to 2011 by French leaders and senior officials. Some muslim brothers wanted by Interpol have been protected by the French state. For example: Tahar Moubari, responsible for the special operations, that is to say the terrorist attacks that were committed in Tunisia between 1987 and 1991, was in France while he was wanted by Interpol.5
Al Dustour : Many reports indicate that the group suffers from a state of division and a lack of material funding. Your comment ?
Youssef Hindi : To understand this, we must go back to the defeat of the Muslim Brotherhood and Qatar in their war against Syria, following the intervention of Iran and Russia.
In early 2017, Donald Trump has just been elected, the Democrats who supported the Muslim Brotherhood during the Arab Spring, are no longer in power. Qatar, the main provider of funds to the terrorists in Syria, falls into disgrace, and the Muslim Brotherhood with them. A conflict then broke out between Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Saudi Arabia wanted to regain the leadership of political Islam that Qatar had usurped during the Arab Spring. But it is necessary to make a little history to understand the ins and outs.
The conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar was actually been simmering for several years.
Saudi Arabia has supported financially for several decades, before abandoning them – because of their revolutionary activism of which the Saudi kingdom has suffered – one of the main Anglo-American weapons of destabilization of the Muslim world : the Muslim Brotherhood.
The divorce between the Saudis and the Muslim Brotherhood was consummated in the 2000s. Prince Nayef bin Abdelaziz Al Saud (1934-2012) declared:
« We have helped too much the Muslim Brotherhood who are the cause of the problems in the Arab world, and perhaps in the Muslim world ».
The sixth leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, Maamoun al-Hudhaybi (1921-2004), said he was « shocked and saddened ». In June 2006, in a symposium on « The Concept of Civil Government in the Brotherhood », Abu al-Fatuh, a member of the Brotherhood’s Guidance Bureau, in response to the Saudi-Wahhabi regime, called Wahhabism « a Bedouin Islam that has spread extremism and terrorism and reduced Islam to deceptive signs, such as wearing short robes (the hallmark of religious dignitaries) and worthless narratives ».
Following this rupture, Qatar took over from the Saudis in supporting the Muslim Brotherhood.
The Qatar/Muslim Brotherhood tandem will be at the forefront of the destabilization of Libya, Egypt, Tunisia and Syria from 2011. The Arab Spring, which should be called the « Zionist Spring », was implemented to accomplish the Israeli plan to carve up the Muslim world (Oded Yinon Plan, 1982) updated and implemented by the United States (Greater Middle East Initiative, 2002).
Qatar, by its hyperactivity and taking advantage of the context, will then supplant Saudi Arabia in a domain that historically belongs to it : the financing of terrorism, a geostrategic tool of Uncle Sam..
The rivalry and hatred between Saudi Arabia and Qatar will therefore be exacerbated by the Arab Spring. But make no mistake, Saudi Arabia provided terrorists in Syria with weapons and large sums of money, while the CIA trained terrorists to use AK-47s and other anti-tank missiles, following a secret authorization given by President Obama to the CIA in 2013, as reported by the New York Times6 :
« The Qataris have also helped finance the training and allowed a Qatari base to be used as an additional training location. But American officials said Saudi Arabia was by far the largest contributor to the operation. »
However, during the second term of the Democrat Barak Obama, the US moved away from the Saud in favor of the Muslim Brotherhood7 (and therefore of Qatar, which is the source of its funding) that they have supported since the 1950s, but also in favor of the Iranian nuclear negotiations with the liberal Rohani.
The petro-monarchies, which are basically just tools of the United States and Israel, bear the brunt of the changes of administration in the United States every four or eight years. It should be noted that, especially since Bush Senior (who was a true godfather and second father to Prince Bandar, former Minister of Defense who managed international terrorism), the main allies of the Saudis in the US are the Republicans.
With Donald Trump, we witnessed the return of the neo-conservative Republicans (who subjugated Trump) at the head of the American administration and who are renewing their ties with the Saudis to the detriment of the Iranians and the Qataris. The arms deal signed with Trump signifies the renewal of the 1945 alliance between Roosevelt and Abdelaziz ibn Saud. But since the return of the Democrats to power, with Joe Biden, the ties between the United States and Saudi Arabia have become strained again.
As I said, the Muslim Brotherhood and Qatar were weakened by their failure in Syria, and the rival powers of the United States took advantage of this to bring Qatar into their fold, and thus end its terrorist activism, and perhaps the funding of the Muslim Brotherhood.
In 2017, the Saudis tried to change the regime in Qatar to turn the country into a vassal. But several countries objected. Turkey in particular – Erdogan’s sense of solidarity with the small emirate is understandable8, since he was, with Qatar, one of the main supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood in the destruction of Syria – and Pakistan, which sent to Qatar respectively 5,000 and 20,000 men9 to protect the regime from possible aggression.
Since then, a number of Muslim countries (Morocco, Oman, Kuwait) have supported Qatar, refusing the injunction of the Saudis who are forced to ease the pressure.
One of the hypotheses put forward to explain the current crisis is the coordination of Qatar’s actions with Iran in Syria.
According to the Russian media Sputnik « Qatari diplomatic sources report that Qatar is trying to coordinate with Iran in Syria, which would partly explain the crisis in relations between Doha on the one hand and Riyadh and its allies on the other. In this sense, the publication of the positive words of Emir Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani about Tehran on the website of the Qatari news agency, allegedly as a result of hacking, could not be a coincidence. Russian diplomatic sources believe that Qatar’s aspiration to establish cooperation with Iran, including on the situation in Syria, sets it apart from other Gulf monarchies. »
Another source said « it is to reduce the tension between the armed groups supervised by Doha and the Iranian military and volunteers. »
The analysis of Russian political scientist Stanislav Tarassov is along the same lines : « In Syria, there is now a relative stabilization of the situation in favor of the government forces and Damascus, which is supported by Iran as well. In Yemen, the fighting continues and the insurgents, who benefit from Iran’s sympathies, are fighting against the Arab coalition led by Saudi Arabia, and Doha has long been suspected in the Gulf of siding with Iran… And Iran, for its part, declares that this settlement can only be inter-Syrian and that the Western countries, the Arab states and Russia should only be observers and to some extent guarantors. »10
It is the complete reversal of the balance of power in the war between Syria and terrorist groups, since the Russian intervention, that has obviously forced Qatar to initiate cooperation with Iran on the ground, all supervised by the Russians.
Moreover, on June 10, 2017, Qatari Foreign Minister Mohammed bin Abderrahmane Al Thani, traveled to Moscow to meet with his Russian counterpart, Sergei Lavrov11, probably to find some form of support.
Al Dustour : In your opinion, why is the Brotherhood trying to penetrate European societies, specifically Germany, France and Austria ?
Youssef Hindi : These are countries where the number or percentage of Muslims is significant. The objective of the Muslim Brotherhood, like the Wahhabis for several decades, is to have a hold on these Muslim populations in the West. It is a work of influence, of the geopolitics of religions led by the Ikhwan and the Wahhabi petro-monarchies. These Muslims can then be used as a fifth column in Western countries.
It should not be forgotten either that the Muslim Brotherhood and the Wahhabis are allies of the Anglo-American powers. They are used to destabilize Muslim countries, and as a fictitious or real threat in Western countries to terrorize populations, through attacks. This allows the leaders of the United States and Europe to designate Muslims as a threat, as part of the strategy of the clash of civilizations.
Christoph Hörstel, a former instructor at the German army’s leadership center, speaks of a « management of terror » that consists of fabricating or allowing attacks to take place in order to distract the population and especially to divert its anger in times of economic crisis. This expert states that all NATO member governments are lying, because the perpetrators of the attacks are, according to him, in 95% of the cases very well known to the security services12.
This pretext of the fight against terrorism has been very useful to impose liberticidal laws and surveillance of populations in the Western world.
Al Dustour : How do you see the recent measures by the Austrian government to deter political Islam groups, particularly the Muslim Brotherhood ?
Youssef Hindi : To be precise, Austria has not banned the Muslim Brotherhood, but has simply banned its symbol. On July 8, 2021, the Austrian Parliament banned the display, posting, wearing or distributing of Muslim Brotherhood symbols.
This is therefore a semi-ban, as the Ikhwani organizations in Europe do not present themselves as Muslim Brotherhood, even though they claim the heritage. This allows the Ikhwan to establish itself and spread without being formally banned.
This being said, the Muslim Brotherhood has been losing ground since its defeat in Syria, as I said. This explains this Austrian law, and also a change of the french state position. On April 26, 2018, in Paris, the international conference « No Money for Terror » took place, during which the Qatari Minister of Finance announced a range of measures to better control charitable organizations, which also and especially finance the Muslim Brotherhood in Europe.
In the concluding speech of this conference, French President Emmanuel Macron states:
« We have been, sometimes collectively, sorcerer’s apprentices, either through naivety or conviction, but the results were the same. Far too many countries have nurtured movements that are directly terrorist or linked to terrorism.
Today there are associations, groups, which in the name of a religion, in the name of charitable actions, collect private donations that they divert to purposes that are not those initially promised. We must, through our cooperation, fight against such behavior. »13
Al Dustour : Has the Muslim Brotherhood succeeded in winning over the leftist parties in Europe ?
Youssef Hindi : No, we can’t talk in those terms. There are indeed Muslim Brothers who have links with left-wing elected officials. We have seen ikhwani imams calling, in their mosques, to vote for the left despite their program promoting homosexuality and homoparentality ; and this in exchange for subsidies. But there is no penetration of the Muslim Brotherhood in the left-wing parties to conquer them. But both the Ikhwan and the left-wing parties manipulate the Muslims.
Al Dustour : The Brotherhood intentionally appears permanently in the guise of the victim and issues democratic discourse, but it implements its agendas in secret. How can the Brotherhood’s methods be revealed?
Youssef Hindi : I think the best way to reveal the methods of the Muslim Brotherhood is to go back to its origins, to the time of Hassan al-Banna and his maneuvers, especially in the 1940s. In my book, « L’islam politique » (KA Editions in partnership with Strategika14), I traced the history of Wahhabism, Islamic reformism and the Muslim Brotherhood. I analyzed the methods and policies of Hassan al-Banna.
Hassan al-Banna taught his followers: « And if they say to you, ‘This is politics,’ say, ‘This is Islam, and we did not know these distinctions. And if they say to you, ‘You are revolutionary propagandists,’ say, ‘We are propagandists of a Truth and a Peace in which we believe and of which we are proud. If they rise up against us and block the road before our call, God has allowed us to defend ourselves, and you are the insurgents, the oppressors. » (in Al-Ikhwan al-Muslimin newspaper, May 20, 1954)
Al-Banna glued an Islamic terminology to a revolutionary doctrine that instrumentalized religion for political purposes.
In 1940, the Muslim Brotherhood organization, already very powerful, had 250,000 members (according to al-Banna). The same year (or in 1942 according to sources), Hassan al-Banna created the armed branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, the « Secret Organization », to « fight against the British, to wage war against the enemies of the movement and to accomplish the duty of jihad ».
The « Secret Organization », created under the pretext of « anti-British and anti-Zionist struggle », was soon used for other purposes ; it was, according to one testimony (Al Uqali), « the movement’s workshop, its armed arm preparing for the takeover ».
Abd al-Azim Ramadan, professor of contemporary history at Menoufeya University, says that the leaders of the Secret Organization assured recruits that the Secret Organization was for anti-British struggle and that they were indoctrinated only afterwards, and gradually15.
Abd al-Magid Hasan, who assassinated Prime Minister Nuqrashi in 1948, reported that it was explained to him when he was recruited that the Muslim Brotherhood had to resort to arms.
Hassan al-Banna wants power, and to do this he wants to avoid scaring the elites and the British. The struggle against the British occupier is not always on his « agenda » of priorities, which are political and perceived as politicking. He has two irons in the fire and may temporarily abandon nationalist demands for immediate gains (access to newsprint at subsidized prices, for example).
Another example is Hassan al-Banna’s distancing himself in 1946 from the nationalist agitation led by the Wafd and the Marxists. Some would say that this was a lack of appreciation of the mood of the population, a political miscalculation. Others, like Husayn al-Shafi, who was close to the Brotherhood, will see it as a perversity of al-Banna:
« A Muslim supports the preaching for Islam only after making sure: is it sincere ? Is it ready to sacrifice and to give ? This was not the case with the Brothers. »
In 1948, the Muslim Brotherhood’s paramilitary wing, the « Secret Organization », assassinated Egyptian Prime Minister Mahmoud al-Nukrashi. While the country was at war with Israel (1948) and internal security was vital, the Muslim Brotherhood committed other acts of violence : assassinations, dynamiting of establishments, and attacks against Egyptians. The concomitance of the war against Israel and the attacks committed by the Brotherhood in Egypt raises questions. This is what will lead Mahmoud al- Akkad to see the Muslim Brotherhood as allies of Israel.
The Muslim Brotherhood’s attacks came on top of another scandalous fact, namely the Muslim Brotherhood’s support for the « Anglophile » government of Sidqi Pasha (February-December 1946), which the Egyptian street rejected. Sidqi Pasha was openly in favour of an agreement with the Western powers.
One of the officers close to the Ikhwan, Khalid Muhyi al-Din, testifies: « The Brothers thus revealed their ‘political’ side, they acted as a political group and abandoned the pretensions of religious purity. They needed to publish a daily newspaper and therefore needed paper, in a context of severe scarcity. They approached Sidqi and got the necessary subsidies in return. They spoke out against the Patriotic Committee of Students and Workers [a coalition of Wafdists and Marxists] and tried to found another committee, cooperating with Sidqi. We understood that they were like all other politicians, preferring their own interests and those of their group to their proclaimed principles and the national interest. I discussed at length with Nasser about our relationship with the Brothers, and he confided to me his fears that the Brothers were using us, as officers, for their own interests and not for the interests of the country. I confided my feelings to him; and we agreed that we had compromised ourselves more than necessary with this movement and that we should withdraw.
Certainly, it is impossible to say: this day, we left the movement. But doubts filled our hearts, we no longer got along and we no longer showed any zeal or enthusiasm; Gamal and I gradually drifted apart (…). From the beginning (of) 1947, our relationship, Gamal and I, with the Brothers was very distant. »
Ahmad Tuyama, an officer member of the Organization, leaves the Muslim Brotherhood because he « wants to liberate his country and not become a murderer, murder being one of the most serious sins (…). I am not God to decide who is a traitor and who is not. »
Another officer, Ukasha, explains that: « The compromise of the Brotherhood in mysterious things, such as assassinations, and other related actions, inspired us with repulsion and made us realize the need to create a global organization not adhering to any sectarian doctrine. »
The Muslim Brotherhood was and will remain an ally of the British. The year Nasser ended the British occupation of Egypt, the Muslim Brotherhood attempted to assassinate him on October 26, 1954, while he was giving a speech celebrating the British withdrawal.
Al Dustour : Why did the group lose its position and control in Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco?
Youssef Hindi : There is no single answer to this question, as the political context is different in each of these countries. In Morocco, the Muslim Brotherhood is represented by a political party, the PJD (Party of Justice and Development), which did not come to power as a result of a revolution, but rather through elections. Moreover, the Muslim Brotherhood is totally domesticated by the Palace.
In Tunisia, Ennahda’s policies have been a failure, compounded by internal divisions. On July 25, 2021, the Tunisian president, Kaïs Saied, declared a state of emergency, suspended the parliament and dismissed the prime minister. This followed 10 years of catastrophic management by Ennahda. Moreover, the decision of the president had caused the joy of the crowds exasperated by the policy of the Brotherhood in power.
In Egypt also, the management of the Brotherhood has resulted in the resumption of power by the army and the imprisonment of Morsi.
The Muslim Brotherhood, like many revolutionary movements, is a master of subversion but does not know how to govern. The French writer Anatole France (1844-1924) said, « The Republic governs badly, but it defends itself well ». This also applies to the Ikhwan.
In the time of al-Banna the same problem existed. The objective of the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood was to take power, but he did not have a political program. When, for example, his allies insisted on preparing a program, especially an economic and social one, Hassan al-Banna replied:
« If I prepare a program, I will attract the contentment of some and the displeasure of others, I will gain support and lose others. I don’t want that. »
Al Dustour : Why has the group not been declared a terrorist organization in Western countries so far?
Youssef Hindi : As I explained above, the Muslim Brotherhood has been a tool in the hands of the Anglo-Americans since the 1940s. This explains why the vassals of the United States have tolerated the Muslim Brotherhood on their territory, despite the danger it represents.
At the moment, the Muslim Brotherhood’s networks are not very active, but perhaps tomorrow the Western powers will need the Ikhwan again.
Al Dustour : In conclusion, many experts say that the group Boko Haram, the Taliban and ISIS all emerged from the cradle of the Brotherhood and with the teachings of Sayyid Qutb, your comment?
Youssef Hindi : I don’t quite agree. In my opinion, the takfirist terrorist groups are the heirs of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792), the founder of Wahhabism. Then, in the first half of the 20th century, reformists, precursors of al-Banna, such as Rachid Ridha (1865-1935), who was paid by the King of Saudi Arabia Abdelaziz ibn Saud, became the promoters of Wahhabism in Arab countries, beginning with Egypt.
Hassan al-Banna was the disciple of Rachid Ridha, reformist and promoter of Wahhabism. In a way, the Muslim Brotherhood was born from the fusion of Wahhabism and Islamic reformism, which came from the Masonic lodges.
The links between the Ikhwan and the Saudi-Wahhabi will continue for decades, via, Saudi arabia and some thinkers like the Qutb brothers.
Sayyid Qutb and his brother Muhammad were arrested in the summer of 1965 for planning the assassination of Egyptian leaders and the overthrow of the government.
In 1966, Sayyid was executed, but Muhammad was spared. He moved, with other Muslim Brothers, to Saudi Arabia. From 1972, Muhammad Qutb became a professor at the University of UM al-Qura in Mecca and at the King Abdel Aziz University in Jeddah. Thus, Muhammad Qutb spread his brother’s ideas in Saudi Arabia. Osama Bin Laden regularly attended his classes.16
According to the testimony of Saudi journalist Jamal Kashoggi (2006), Muhammad Qutb will later be in Peshawar with Bin Laden and Ayman Zawahiri.
Ayman Zawahiri, the current leader of Al Qaeda, is a former member of the Muslim Brotherhood.
During the Syrian war we saw again the alliance of the Muslim Brotherhood and the Wahhabi Tafrkirists. In fact, they were saying exactly the same thing and were acting in the same way. The Muslim Brother Yusuf Al-Qardaoui actively supported the terrorists in Libya and Syria. On Al-Jazeera, on February 21, 2011, he issued a fatwa calling for the killing of Gaddafi17.
Also on Al-Jazeera, in December 2012, he called for mass murder in Syria: « Those who act with the power, it is obligatory for us to kill all of them: military, civilians, ulama, ignorant (…) those who are on the side of this unjust power (Syrian regime). »18
In 2011, on a TV show on a Saudi channel, Adnan Arour, a former Muslim Brother, threatened all Muslims in Syria, whether Sunni or Shiite (as well as Alawites, Ismailis, etc.) who opposed the terrorists, to « have them chopped up and fed to the dogs ».
The roots of terrorism and the Muslim Brotherhood are much deeper than most experts say, and this is what I have shown in my book « L’Islam politique ».
3 Christian Chesnot et Georges Malbrunot, Qatar papers : Comment l’émirat finance l’islam de France et d’Europe, Michel Lafon, 2019.
5Jean-Loup Izambert, 6, l’État français complice de groupes criminels, t. 1, IS Édition, 2015 ; 56 — tome II : Mensonges et crimes d’État, t. 2, IS Edition, 2017.
6New York Times, U.S Relies Heavily on Saudi Money to Support Syrian Rebles, 23/01/2016.
7 The U.S. administration supported the Muslim Brotherhood during the 2012 Egyptian presidential elections and the president-elect (and one year later deposed) Mohamed Morsi. Morsi was educated in the United States and holds U.S. citizenship. He has worked as an engineer at NASA. The links between Barak Obama and the Muslim Brotherhood are established in this article : http://www.solidariteetprogres.org/actualites-001/freres-obama-protecteurs-terrorisme-islamique-saoudien-10481.html
15 Abd al-Azîm Ramadan, Al-ikhwân al-muslimûn wa-l-tanzîm al-sirrî, Cairo, Rose al-yûsuf, 1982, pp. 50-51.
16 Lawrence Wright, Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, NY, Knopf, 2006, p. 79.
17 Global Voices, Libye : Le dignitaire religieux Qardawi prononce une Fatwa à l’encontre de Kadhafi, 22/02/2011.
18Oumma.com, Qaradâwî a-t-il une responsabilité morale dans l’assassinat de Ramadan Al-Bouti ? 26 mars 2013.